Center for Global Health

James Ebert, M.D., M.B.A., M.P.H., F.A.A.P., Oscar Boonshoft Chair and Director

Health Systems Building located at Research Park About Us

Our Mission

Provide education, conduct research, and promote service towards improving and sustaining the health of populations and individuals worldwide.

Our Vision

Improved health outcomes everywhere


Center Team


Program Directors

James R. Ebert, M.D., M.B.A., M.P.H., F.A.A.P.
Oscar Boonshoft Chair and Director, Center for Global Health
Program Director, Master of Public Health Program

John McAlearney, Ph.D.
Health Economist
Program Director, Health Care Management Certificate Program
Public Health Management Director, Master of Public Health Program

 

Faculty

John D. Bullock, M.D., M.P.H., M.Sc., F.I.D.S.A., F.A.C.E., F.R.S.M.
Infectious Disease Epidemiologist

Kenneth C. Dahms, J.D., M.A.
Voluntary Faculty, Master of Public Health Program

Michael N. Dohn, M.D., M.Sc.
Associate Professor of Community Health

Sylvia Ann Ellison, M.P.H., M.A.
Research Instructor

Mark Gebhart, M.D., C.P.M., F.A.A.E.M.
Emergency Preparedness Director, Master of Public Health Program

James Gross, M.P.H.
Voluntary Faculty, Master of Public Health Program

Naila Khalil, M.B.B.S., M.P.H., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Community Health

Marietta Orlowski, Ph.D., MCHES
Health Promotion and Education Director, Master of Public Health Program

Sara J. Paton, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Community Health, Epidemiologist

Cristina Redko, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Community Health
Global Health Director, Master of Public Health Program

Nikki Rogers, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Community Health
Culminating Experience Course Director, Master of Public Health Program

Bill Spears, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Community Health and Pediatrics, Master of Public Health Program

 

Staff

Lori Metivier, A.A.S.
Program Coordinator

Anne King
Program Assistant

Cyneca Reed, A.A.B., B.S.B.A.
Program Assistant

 

James Ebert James R. Ebert, M.D., M.B.A., M.P.H., F.A.A.P.
Oscar Boonshoft Chair and Director, Center for Global Health
Program Director, Master of Public Health Program

James R. Ebert, M.D., M.B.A., M.P.H., F.A.A.P., is an associate professor of community health and pediatrics in the Boonshoft School of Medicine at Wright State University and the lipid clinic lead physician at Children’s Medical Center of Dayton. Dr. Ebert was named as the Oscar Boonshoft Chair and Director of the Center for Global Health and the program director for the Master of Public Health Program in January 2009.

Dr. Ebert was an associate professor of pediatrics at the University of Cincinnati and served on the clinical faculty of Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine for 16 years before joining the fully affiliated faculty. He holds the Graduate Certificate in Health Care Management, has done advanced course work in operations research and biostatistics at Case Western Reserve University, and has completed the Carnegie Mellon University program in executive leadership. He was enrolled in one of the final W. Edwards Deming seminars in 1992, and taught Deming management and quality improvement for several years.

Dr. Ebert is a retired colonel in the United States Air Force. While in the Air Force, Dr. Ebert served as chief of medical staff and commander of medical operations at Wright-Patterson Medical Center. He played a leading role at Wright-Patterson in the rollout of the federal military managed care transition known as TRICARE, participated in the implementation of three different electronic medical information systems, and traveled as a surveyor with the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. He also served as director of medical education for seven years, and participated by invitation in the Department of Defense’s Healthcare 2020 strategic planning group in 1995-1996.

Dr. Ebert is a Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics (A.A.P.) and a past president of the Uniformed Services Chapter of the A.A.P. He is a member of the Society for Adolescent Medicine and the American College of Physician Executives. His clinical credentials include board certification in pediatrics and adolescent medicine. His interests include performance improvement, leadership development, medical education and childhood and adolescent health promotion.


John McAlearney John McAlearney, Ph.D.
Health Economist, Center for Global Health
Program Director, Health Care Management Certificate Program
Public Health Management Director, Master of Public Health Program

John McAlearney, Ph.D., is an assistant professor with a joint appointment in the Boonshoft School of Medicine and the Raj Soin College of Business at Wright State University. Dr. McAlearney serves as the program director for the Health Care Management Certificate Program and is a health economist in the Center for Global Health. Dr. McAlearney is the director of the public health management concentration for the Master of Public Health Program and teaches economics of health and health policy. He holds a Ph.D. in health policy with a concentration in health economics from Harvard University. He has more than 18 years experience in the health care and health insurance sectors and has worked for the Ohio Department of Health, the RAND Corporation, the Health Care Financing Administration (now Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services), and the Travelers Insurance Company (now United HealthCare).

Dr. McAlearney’s professional background and formal training have emphasized a multi-disciplinary approach to health services research supplemented by a broad exposure to many specific areas of health care and policy research. Dr. McAlearney’s experience and training qualify him to undertake research or provide assistance in case studies and other qualitative research, program design and evaluation, cost analyses, decision analyses, cost-effectiveness studies, survey design and analyses, economic estimation and modeling, outcomes and quality research and general data analyses. His research focus includes the study of technology adoption, health care applications for geographic information system (GIS), health care costs and global health care system comparisons.


John Bullock John D. Bullock, M.D., M.P.H., M.Sc., F.I.D.S.A., F.A.C.E., F.R.S.M.
Infectious Disease Epidemiologist, Center for Global Health

Dr. Bullock is a research epidemiologist, ophthalmologist, and microbiologist who studies interventions to control serious infectious diseases of the eye. His investigations combine classical epidemiology, mathematical modeling, analytical chemistry, and laboratory experimentation.

He held a clinical faculty position at Stanford University before coming to Wright State, where he served as professor and chair of the Department of Ophthalmology, professor of physiology and biophysics, associate professor of microbiology and immunology, clinical professor of community health, professor of mathematics and statistics, and was named the Brage Golding Distinguished Professor of Research. He also served as a lecturer in law and medicine at the University of Dayton School of Law. He practiced ophthalmology in the Dayton area for over 25 years, seeing more than 50,000 individual patients and performing more than 10,000 ocular/orbital operations. His patients included numerous physicians (and ophthalmologists) and their families, Fortune 500 CEO’s, and a head of state. In his role as a teacher, his past fellows have attained prominent positions at the Mayo Clinic, Stanford University, Penn State University, the University of California, San Francisco, and the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins. Two former fellows served as department chairs of ophthalmology and one became the CEO of a world renowned medical center.

Dr. Bullock, a graduate of Dartmouth College and Harvard Medical School, completed an internship in internal medicine at Washington University in St. Louis before serving as a medical officer in the United States Navy. After residency training in ophthalmology at Yale University, he completed fellowships at the University of California, San Francisco, and the Mayo Clinic. He received a Master of Science in Microbiology and Immunology from Wright State University and a Master of Public Health degree (emphasizing epidemiology) from the Harvard School of Public Health. He also completed additional training from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C., the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and the Pasteur Institute in Paris.

Dr. Bullock is the author or coauthor of more than 240 scientific publications, predominantly related to infectious diseases, toxicology, and trauma. He discovered three new causes of blindness and elucidated the etiology and/or description of eight different retinopathies. His research influenced the market withdrawal of two general anesthetics, a warning label for a pharmaceutical agent whose inappropriate use resulted in blindness, and a Consumer Products Safety Commission-mandated warning label.

He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American College of Epidemiology, and the Royal Society of Medicine. For more than 10 years he served as an associate board examiner for the American Board of Ophthalmology. He is a member of the: Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society; Delta Omega Honorary Society in Public Health; American Ophthalmological Society; Cornea Society (Member with Thesis); Cogan Ophthalmic History Society; American Osler Society; John Snow Society; Doctors Mayo Society; American Public Health Association; and American Society for Microbiology, among others.

Dr. Bullock received a Heed Fellowship from the Heed Ophthalmic Foundation; the Wendell Hughes, Merrill J. Reeh, and Marvin H. Quickert Awards from the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; and the Senior Honor Award from the American Academy of Ophthalmology. He has been recognized as “One of Ohio’s Finest Citizens” by the Ohio House of Representatives and was listed in a “Best Doctors in America” publication. He has been nominated for the Lighthouse International Pisart Vision Award, the Gen-Probe Joseph Public Health Award, and the Bressler Vision Science Award. In 2011 he received the Outstanding Scientific Project Award from the Vision Care Section of the American Public Health Association. He has numerous other awards (including teaching awards), copyrights, trademarks, and inventions.

Dr. Bullock has given more than 500 lectures throughout the world (including to the: Moorfields Eye Hospital in London; Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary at Harvard Medical School; Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins; Wills Eye Hospital in Philadelphia; King Khaled Eye Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; and Fyodorov Eye Institute in Moscow, Russia), a number of which were distinguished, named lectureships. He is the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Ocular Diseases and Therapeutics, has served on the editorial boards of 22 medical journals (including Nature [Scientific Reports / Public Health]), was a manuscript reviewer for 32 journals, and served as president and secretary / treasurer of two international medical societies. His current research interests include ocular infectious disease epidemiology and the history of ophthalmology. His historical publications have included investigations of the blindness of Louis Braille, Dom Perignon and the Biblical St. Paul, among others.

He has been asked to consult as an expert in over 500 medical-legal cases. He has also served as a consultant to the: National Institutes of Health; Hospital Albert Schweitzer in Haiti; Veteran’s Administration; U.S. Air Force; American Medical Association; Harvard-Hsiao Resource-Based Relative Value Study; and author and Pulitzer Prize winner Stephen Hunter, who also characterized him in one of his novels, The Master Sniper. He has been quoted in The New York Times and was characterized in one, and appeared in another, nationally televised program.

Dr. Bullock (along with B.L. Elder, Ph.D., R.E. Warwar, M.D. and H.J. Khamis, Ph.D.) has been investigating a worldwide epidemic of infectious blindness which they traced to an improperly bottled and stored contact lens solution and published their findings in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Dr. Bullock was Wright State’s inaugural Public Health Grand Rounds speaker and is the author of the Introduction to the Delta Omega Classics article, The Mosquito Hypothetically Considered as an Agent in the Transmission of Yellow Fever Poison, by the Cuban ophthalmologist and infectious disease epidemiologist, Carlos Juan Finlay.


Kenneth Dahms Kenneth C. Dahms, J.D., M.A.
Voluntary Faculty, Master of Public Health Program

Kenneth C. Dahms, J.D., M.A., serves on the voluntary faculty in the Master of Public Health Program. In 2010, Mr. Dahms retired from Wright State, where his responsibilities included the coordination of the M.P.H. student practice placements. He was the director of administration for the Montgomery County Combined Health District from 1999 until his retirement in 2004. Prior to that time, Mr. Dahms was the health district’s in-house legal counsel. In his capacity as the director of administration for the Montgomery County Health District, he managed a department of 40 employees and was responsible for an agency budget of $32 million.

Throughout his 28-year career in public health, Mr. Dahms was a frequent lecturer and panel participant on a broad variety of public health topics. Mr. Dahms received his B.A. in political science from Oklahoma State University in 1968, and his M.A. in government from American University in 1971. He also received a J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1973.


Michael N. Dohn, M.D., M.Sc.Michael N. Dohn, M.D., M.Sc.
Associate Professor of Community Health

Michael N. Dohn, M.D., M.Sc., is an associate professor teaching within the Master of Public Health Program at the Center for Global Health. Dr. Dohn’s past experience includes many years of clinical work in respiratory and infectious diseases (particularly HIV/AIDS). Just prior to joining the Wright State University faculty, he spent  14 years in community health development programs in the Caribbean region with a focus on the causes of excess childhood deaths, women’s health, HIV/AIDS, and gender-based violence, among other areas. Dr. Dohn holds an M.D. degree from the University of Cincinnati and a M.Sc. in public health from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. His clinical training was in internal medicine and pulmonary/critical care medicine.


Sylvia Ellison Sylvia Ann Ellison, M.P.H., M.A.
Research Instructor, Master of Public Health Program

Sylvia Ann Ellison, M.P.H., M.A., is experienced in survey research, statistical data analysis and research grants. She is originally from Washington, D.C., and holds an M.A. with concentrations in demography and gender, work and family from the University of Maryland. She received her M.P.H. with a concentration in Health Promotion & Education from Wright State University in 2012. Before joining the Center, Ms. Ellison was a research analyst for Westat, Inc., a social science analyst for the National Institutes of Health and a health statistician for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Maryland. She is involved in statistical analyses and advising, and grant and research paper writing. Her research interests include the cultural determinants of infant feeding practices, and how those practices affect maternal and child health and well being.


Mark Gebhart, M.D. Mark Gebhart, M.D., C.P.M., F.A.A.E.M.
Associate Professor, Department of Community Heath
Emergency Preparedness Director, Master of Public Health Program

Mark Gebhart, M.D., C.P.M., F.A.A.E.M., completed his undergraduate studies at Wright state University, earning a bachelor of arts in biological sciences. He earned his doctorate of medicine at Wright state University in 1997. He also completed his residency and served as chief resident in the integrated residency in emergency medicine at Wright State. Dr. Gebhart is a certified project manager. He is also a diplomat at the American Board of Emergency Medicine. Disaster medicine and disaster preparedness are his specific interest areas. Dr. Gebhart previously led a FEMA urban search and rescue team (USAR) as task force leader. In this capacity, he responded to numerous national level emergencies, including Hurricane Katrina.


James Gross James W. Gross, M.P.H.
Voluntary Faculty, Master of Public Health Program

James Gross, M.P.H., serves on the voluntary faculty in the Master of Public Health program. As the current health commissioner of Montgomery County with a total of 30 years of local public health experience, Mr. Gross provides practical insights to the M.P.H. program and is a primary communication link between the Center for Global Health and the Miami Valley community. As the chief executive officer of Public Health-Dayton & Montgomery County, he oversees approximately 75 public health programs, 400 employees and an annual budget of almost $40 million. He also holds executive level positions in numerous local organizations, including the Human Services Levy Council, the Family and Children First Council and the Community Health Centers of Greater Dayton. Mr. Gross has also served as assistant health commissioner and held management positions with the Regional Air Pollution Control Agency. He received his B.S. degree in earth science education from Wright State University in 1977 and was one of the first graduates of WSU’s Master of Public Health program in 2005.


Nalia Khalil Naila Khalil, M.B.B.S., M.P.H., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Community Health

Naila Khalil, M.B.B.S., M.P.H., Ph.D., is an assistant professor of community health within the Center for Global Health. Dr. Khalil is an instructor for the Master of Public Health Program, where she teaches environmental health.

Dr. Khalil graduated with a Ph.D. in environmental epidemiology from the University of Pittsburgh in 2007. She is a physician and also holds a M.P.H. degree from Pakistan. Dr. Khalil worked for 12 years in the Ministry of Health, Pakistan, as a public health practitioner. Besides teaching environmental health (EH) in the M.P.H. program, Quaide Azam University, Islamabad, she was the national program manager for EH, a collaborative effort with World Health Organization. Dr. Khalil was involved in interdisciplinary curriculum development of the M.P.H. program, health care waste project, environmental health impact assessment and water safety. Her interests also included supervising M.P.H. dissertations.

Before joining the center as assistant professor, Dr. Khalil was a post doctoral researcher at the Lifespan Health Research Center at Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine. Her research involved human growth and body composition. Her previous research focused on longitudinal analysis of skeletal and metabolic changes during menopause in a study funded by the National Institutes of Health. The abstract from this research was selected for a Young Investigators Award by the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research in 2009. Dr. Khalil’s doctoral dissertation focused on multiple health outcomes associated with environmental lead exposures in older people in the United States. She was awarded a pilot grant to study the association of lead exposure and risk of fractures in men. Her M.P.H. research related to food and water safety, where she modeled a proactive strategy for preventing food borne illness in airlines (hazard analysis and critical control points).


Dr. Orlowski Marietta Orlowski, Ph.D., MCHES
Associate Professor of Community Health
Health Promotion and Education Director, Master of Public Health Program

Marietta Orlowski, Ph.D., MCHES, is an associate professor in the Department of Community Health and serves as the director of the heath promotion and education concentration in the Master of Public Health program. She was a 2005 recipient of the Wright State University Presidential Award for Excellence in Early Career Achievement and a 2010 recipient of the Outstanding Faculty Member in the MPH program. Dr. Orlowski’s research involves health behavior measurement and risk reduction in children and adolescents. She collaborated with a local school district in a federally funded project to increase the activity level of children, and has been invited to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to present her research in tobacco prevention. She enjoys working with graduate students on community-based public health projects and many of these students have presented their work at national and state conferences.

Dr. Orlowski completed her doctorate in health promotion and education, with a cognate in health care administration, at The Ohio State University. She has an M.A. from Morehead State University and a B.S. from the University of Cincinnati. Prior to coming to Wright State, Dr. Orlowski was the Director of Health Education for Middletown Regional Health System and implemented community-based risk reduction programs throughout southwest Ohio. She also practiced as a health educator in eastern Kentucky. Dr. Orlowski is a member of the American School Health Association, the American Public Health Association and the Society for Public Health Education.


Sara Paton Sara J. Paton, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Community Health
Epidemiologist, Center for Global Health

Sara Paton, Ph.D., is an associate professor of epidemiology in the Center for Global Health and has a joint appointment with the WSU Department of Community Health and Public Health - Dayton & Montgomery County. Within the Center for Global Health, Dr. Paton is an instructor for the Master of Public Health Program, where she teaches epidemiology, is a guest lecturer in a variety of subjects, and participates in ongoing research. Her recent research at Wright State includes an epidemiological breast cancer study of Madison County, Ohio. At Public Health - Dayton & Montgomery County, she serves as an epidemiologist and works on special projects. Her projects there include topics in Low Birth Weight, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, Health Disparities, and Community Assessment, within both Montgomery County and the 17 surrounding counties for Perinatal Region II of Ohio. She also has a contract with the National Center for Medical Readiness to assist with their work.

Dr. Paton has been at Wright State since 2001, initially in a post-doc appointment in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, before becoming an assistant professor in the Department of Community Health. Her research in pharmacology and toxicology was funded by a Department of Defense grant; it investigated the effect of sarin nerve gas, pyridostigmine bromide and stress on biochemical disorders believed to exist in the veterans of the Gulf War. Dr. Paton completed her Ph.D. at the University of Kentucky in 2001 specializing in nutrition. She received a M.S. in animal science at Angelo State University, and a B.S. in biomedical science and animal science at Texas A&M University.


Cristina Redko Cristina Redko, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Community Health
Global Health Director, Master of Public Health Program

Cristina Redko, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of community health at Boonshoft School of Medicine. Dr. Redko serves as the director for the global health concentration in the Master of Public Health Program where she teaches global health and global health systems.

Dr. Redko has been working at Wright State University since 2003. Initially, she collaborated with Center for Interventions, Treatment and Addictions Research faculty conducting epidemiologic and ethnographic investigations of people with substance abuse problems. This experience solidified her conviction of the potential and significance of doing interdisciplinary and mixed methods research in public health.

Dr. Redko has developed a vast research experience, including investigating the lived experience of people suffering from mental illnesses, people with substance abuse problems, people with cancer and those who have suffered from injuries in the workplace. She has conducted research in United States, Brazil and Canada. Dr. Redko collaborates with the ongoing research initiatives of the Center for Global Health. Her current research interests intersect the areas of global health, global mental health (giving special attention to resilience factors) and refugee research.

Dr. Redko holds a Ph.D. in medical anthropology from McGill University and a M.Sc. in clinical epidemiology from McMaster University, both in Canada. During her post-doctoral work in health services research at the Center for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto, she also completed clinical training in brief therapy at the Hincks-Dellcrest Institute. She earned an M.A. and a B.A. from Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.


Dr. Rogers Nikki Rogers, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Community Health
Culminating Experience Course Director, Master of Public Health Program

Nikki Rogers, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of Community Health at Boonshoft School of Medicine. She serves within the Global Health concentration in the Master of Public Health Program and directs the Culminating Experience courses (CMH 8210, CMH 8220). Dr. Rogers came to Wright State University in 2000 as a post-doctoral researcher for the Lifespan Health Research Center where she conducted research focused on body composition and health in African-American women and families. Her community outreach experience in public health was gained during her time as Research Assistant Professor in WSU’s Substance Abuse Resources and Disability Issues (SARDI) Program, where she served as a program evaluator for federally-funded interventions in substance abuse, mental health and HIV risk targeting the underserved African-American communities within Dayton. This allowed her to expand her focus on African-American women’s health beyond obesity and cardiovascular disease.  During this time she began working on issues impacting the health of African women through her involvement with the Kossoye Development Program, a non-profit program run by the University of Gondar and has introduced organic household gardening to thousands of families in the Amhara region of Ethiopia.

Dr. Rogers holds a Ph.D. in biological anthropology from the University of Tennessee in Knoxville. Her doctoral research and first post-doctoral work was conducted at the Medical University of South Carolina and focused on the African origins and diabetes risk of African-Americans living in the Lowcountry of South Carolina. Her M.A. focused on skeletal biology and forensic anthropology (University of Tennessee, Knoxville) and she earned her B.A. in Anthropology from Florida State University in Tallahassee, where she studied archeology.


Bill Spears Bill Spears, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Community Health and Pediatrics
Master of Public Health Program

Bill Spears, Ph.D., is an associate professor of community health and pediatrics in the Boonshoft School of Medicine and a team member at the Center for Healthy Communities. Dr. Spears teaches in the Master of Public Health program. He is engaged in community health research and works with a number of community groups in the Dayton area. He has been involved with Wellness Matters, a coalition building a healthy Dayton, since its start in 2007. He also serves on the leadership team of the Southwest Ohio Ambulatory Research Practice Based Research Network (SOAR-Net) and is a member of the Interdisciplinary Gerontology Team.

Dr. Spears came to Dayton from the University of Texas School of Public Health San Antonio Regional Campus, where he served on the faculty and was active in community-based research.

He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Texas School of Public Health in Houston in 1991. He also obtained a master’s and a bachelor’s in sociology from Texas Tech University in Lubbock in 1974 and 1977.


Lori Metivier Lori Metivier, A.A.S.
Program Coordinator
Center for Global Health

Lori Metivier serves as full-time administrative support for the Center for Global Health and is the program coordinator for the Master of Public Health program. She has been with Wright State University since 1998, previously supporting the Center of Community Programs within the Dean’s Office of the Raj Soin College of Business as a senior secretary.


Anne KingAnne King
Program Assistant
Center for Global Health

Anne King is the practice placement assistant for the Master of Public Health Program. In this capacity, she assists students administratively with their practicum experience. Anne also serves as the program coordinator for the Health Care Management Certificate Program in the Center for Global Health. She has more than 30 years of administrative experience in business, health care and education. She has been with Wright State University since 2007 and previously worked in the university’s Business and Fiscal Affairs and Enrollment Management Divisions.


Cyneca Reed, A.A.B., B.S.B.A.Cyneca Reed, A.A.B., B.S.B.A.
Program Assistant
Center for Global Health

Cyneca Reed is a program assistant for the Center for Global Health. She received her associate's degree in accounting technology and a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration from Shawnee State University in Portsmouth, Ohio. Before joining the Center, Cyneca worked for the federal government for several years. Cyneca has 15 years’ experience working in accounting and business administration. Cyneca provides fiscal support, daily operations support and administrative and clerical support to Center for Global Health programs and activities.