Articles - Theory

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Getting Started with Team Learning
Larry K. Michaelsen
This essay lays out the key principles that govern the effective use of Team-Based Learning™, and then describes how this teaching strategy works by going through the process from beginning to end.

Beyond Small Groups: Harnessing the Extraordinary Power of Learning Teams
L. Dee Fink
This essay offers a critical analysis of the benefits and challenges of three different ways of using of small groups: "casual use," cooperative learning, and Team-Based Learning™.

Three Keys to Using Learning Groups Effectively
Larry K. Michaelsen
Michaelsen suggests three fundamental principles instructors can use to motivate students in small learning groups.

Team Learning Defined
Baylor College of Medicine
This essay describes TBL's repeating sequences of three phases.

Creating TBL Modules

Creating Application Exercises for Basic Sciences
John Pelley
This paper describes the steps involved in creating application exercises for Basic Sciences.

Team-Based Learning™ in an Integrated Medical Sciences Curriculum
Paul Koles
This Powerpoint describes the steps involved in creating effective TBL modules.

Quellmalz Framework of Thinking Skills
John Pelley
Adapted from Measuring Thinking Skills in the Classroom, Revised Edition, by R. J. Stiggins, E. Rubel, and E. Quellmalz, National Education Assn., 1988.
This paper describes the Quellmalz framework of thinking skills categories (recall, analysis, comparison, inference, and evaluation.)

Higher Order Thinking Skills Question Templates
John Pelley
This paper provides question templates based on the Quellmalz higher order thinking skills framework.

Feedback in Peer Evaluation and Academic Testing

Making Feedback Helpful
Larry K. Michaelsen and Emily E. Schultheiss
This article describes characteristics of helpful feedback.

Two Methods for Calculating Peer Evaluation Scores
Dee Fink
This paper presents two different methods for conducting peer evaluations: a percentage method and a separate "team maintenance" score method.

Provision of Feedback During Preparation for Academic Testing: Learning is Enhanced by Immediate But Not Delayed Feedback
Roberta E. Dihoff, Gary M. Brosvic and Michael L. Epstein
This paper demonstrates the implications for how practice tests, such as publisher-supplied study guides and webbased testing, could be structured in order to maximize learning and retention.

The Role of Feedback During Academic Testing: The Delay Retention Effect Revisited
Roberta E. Dihoff, Gary M. Brosvic and Michael L. Epstein
This paper demonstrates that immediate feedback promotes recall, the most accurate identification of initial responses, increases confidence in answers, and reduces perseverative incorrect responding.

Peer Feedback Form - Score
Peer Feedback Form - Scale
Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine
TBL Peer Feedback forms used at Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine